宣教士美在中:金陵大學及鼓樓醫院的創始人之一

宣教士美在中:金陵大學及其鼓樓醫院的創始人之一


圖1,2018年美國印第安納州州科里登城一位古董商出售的宣教士美在中的肖像。

美在中(Frank Eugene Meigs)1851年5月3日出生於紐約州。幼年時隨家人移居到威斯康星州。 17歲那年,又移居到密蘇裡州,並開始在那裡教書,同時繼續自己的學業,求學和教書交替。隨後他與一名受過良好教育的密蘇裡州女孩瑪莎•雷德福結婚。後來在教學的同時他也開始講道,在五年的時間裡,他一直是密蘇裡州立主日學校的組織者。在這段工作期間,他感受到了去中國宣教的呼招[1]。

美在中和太太於1887年1月12日啟航,1887年10月到達南京,並立即開始了中文學習。他們兩人都曾是經驗豐富的老師,到達後立即表明了對中國教育事工的興趣[1、2]。他租了一座小樓,平日用作學校,週日則用作小教堂。 1891年,他在南京鼓樓正式成立了基督書院(Christian College),並擔任學校負責人。 1907年,該校與益智書院(Presbyterian Academy)合併。益智書院當時是由文懷恩(John E. Williams)博士主持,是美國長老會於1894年創立的。合併後的學校改稱為宏育書院(Union Christian College),由美在中擔任校長,文懷恩擔任副校長。他太太同時也在學校任教,她對學生的要求很高[1、2、3]。

1910年,宏育書院加入匯文書院,共同創立了後來著名的金陵大學。匯文書院是由美國美以美會宣教士福開森(John Calvin Ferguson)於1888年創立的。因此,美在中先生是金陵大學的創始人之一。大學成立後,他擔任聖經學系主任[1],文懷恩擔任金陵大学副校長。

美在中在南京及附近的鄉村傳教,定期前往附近的村莊,有時也會進行長途旅行講道。他出售經文和其他相關文獻,給中國和美國的報紙撰稿。並多年擔任《華中基督教》的編輯。他在南京先後建立了三座教堂,分別位於鼓樓,花市口大街(中華路長樂路口)和下關惠民橋[2]。

1887年10月到達南京後,美在中與基督會传教士加拿大籍馬林(Macklin)醫生等一起租住在鼓樓附近的一個佛教寺院房子內。 1890年,馬林(Macklin)醫生在鼓樓附近開了一家醫療診所。診所就在美在中開辦的基督書院旁邊。這就是後來的金陵大學和它的附屬醫院鼓樓醫院的最早雛形。 1891年,才華橫溢的宣教士柏貫之(James Butchart)醫生加入馬林醫生的診所。這時來就診的病人越來越多,診所難以容納,美在中擔負起了為診所募資擴建的工作[1,2]。印第安納州的美國商人阿隆佐•阿特金森(Alonzo Melville Atkinson)被認為是第一個主要捐款人。在基督會傳教士的鼓勵下,南京當地人荊衛興(Jing Weixing,音譯)家族捐贈了在鼓樓附近的近10英畝土地。這樣,一棟四層樓的大樓在1892年冬季完工,鼓樓醫院正式成立,並在1893年3月舉辦了為期一周的慶祝活動。因此,美在中先生也是鼓樓醫院的最早員工,是協助馬林醫生開辦鼓樓醫院的關鍵人員。


圖2,1895年鼓樓醫院的員工與家屬。後排左起:柏貫之醫生,美在中教授,馬林醫生,衛理先生。衛理(Edward Thomas Williams,1854-1944)是與美在中同船來到中國的宣教士。[1、4]

美在中一直希望建立一所語言學校幫助新來的傳教士和其他在華的外國人學習中文。在他擔任金陵大學教授期間,這個夢想也因南京語言學校的創立而成真,並由他擔任負責人。購買該校土地的商談持續了好幾年,學校宿舍建成後被命名為美在中樓以表彰他的貢獻[1]。從那以後,幾乎所有來中國南方的新傳教士都會先來南京學習中文。而美在中的家總是向新來的傳教士和穿過城市的陌生人開放,美在中太太被稱為是語言學校的女主人[1]。

美於中夫婦以堅定的信念面對艱難的歲月,面對偏見、暴力、流行病和革命。美在中先生生命的最後七年,一直在同疾病作鬥爭。他於1915年8月23日在江西廬山牯嶺去世,安葬在牯嶺外國人公墓。美在中過世後,美在中太太一直留在中國,繼續為新來的傳教士們提供家園,直到退休。退休後,她在她深愛的中國和她在美國的孩子們之間輪流居住。她於1935年10月在康涅狄格克利夫蘭市去世。按照她的遺願,她的遺體被火化後送到廬山牯嶺,安葬在她丈夫的墳墓中[1]。

編號#:20181205-1

參考文獻從略。

作者:方金琪(信望愛小屋),2020年1月17日,作者保留所有文章及圖片版權。歡迎轉載。轉載電子版文章時,敬請註明文章作者和轉自www.healthChinese.ca,並請注意在轉載時,不得對文章進行任何刪除改寫。若需書面轉載本刊文章,請先徵得作者書面許可。

Frank Eugene Meigs, a founder of University of Nanking in China and Its Hospital

Fig. 1 Portrait of Frank Eugene Meigs, sold in 2018 by an antique seller at Corydon, Indiana, USA.

Frank Eugene Meigs (美在中) was born in New York State in 3 May 1851. With his family he moved early to Wisconsin. At seventeen years of age he made another move and began teaching school in Missouri. There he alternated teaching with school attendance as he continued his own education. He married a fellow teacher, Martha A. Redford , a well-educated Missouri girl. Mr. Meigs later added preaching to his teaching. For five years he was state Sunday school organizer for Missouri. While doing that work he heard the call to China [1].

Mr. Meigs and his wife, Mattie Redford Meigs, were sent to China by Disciples of Christ. They sailed for China on 12 Januanry 1887, arrived at Nanking in October, 1887, and at once began the study of the language. Both were experienced teachers and immediately made evident their interest in education [1, 2]. He rented a small building to serve as a school on week days and a chapel on Sundays. In 1891, he established and presided the Christian College (基督書院) at Gulou , Nanjing. In 1907, the school was merged with the Presbyterian Academy (益智書院), which was presided by Dr. John Elias Williams and founded in 1894 by American Presbyterian Church. The new school was then renamed to Union Christian College (宏育書院) and presided by Mr. Meigs. Mrs. Meigs was also teaching in the schools and held very high standards for the students [1, 2, 3].

In 1910, Union Christian College joined Huiwen shuyuan (匯文書院) , which was founded in 1888 by John Calvin Ferguson ( 福開森) of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and became the later well-known university, Private University of Nanking (金陵大学). Therefore, Mr. Meigs was one of the founders of University of Nanking. After the university founded, He was dean of the Bible department of the university [1].

Mr. Meigs preached in Nanking and in the country round about, making regular trips to nearby villages, occasionally going on more extended trips. He preached. He sold scriptures and other literature. He wrote for papers in China and at home. For several years he was the editor of the Central China Christian. He established three churches in Nanking respectively located in Gulou, Huashikou Street (the intersection of Zhonghua Road and Changle Road) and Huimin Bridge of Xiaguan [2]。

When arrived in October, 1887, Mr. and Mrs. Frank E. Meigs settled themselves with Dr. Macklin (马林), a Canadian missionary sent by Disciples of Christ, in an old refurbished quarters at the traditional Buddhist monastery in Nanjing known as Thistle Abbey. In 1890, Dr. Macklin established a new medical clinic in the Drum Tower (Gulou) District of Nanjing near where Professor Meigs founded the Nanking Christian College. The gifted Dr. James Butchart (柏贯之) joined Dr. Macklin in 1891, and soon the medical clinic in the Gulou District proved inadequate for the growing number of patients. At this time, Mr. Meigs made his significant contribution in fund raising for the new hospital [1, 2]. American businessman Alonzo Melville Atkinson of Indiana was the first major American benefactor, and with the encouragement of the Disciples Mission to China, and about ten acres of prime land near the historic Drum Tower was donated by the local Nanjing benefactors Jing Weixing family. Soon a four-story hospital building was completed during the winter of 1892, and formal, public dedication ceremonies were held during week-long celebrations in March of 1893. So Mr. Mergs was also a key person who assisted Dr. Macklin to establish the Kulou (Gulou) Hospital and one of its earliest staff [4].

Fig. 2 Staff members of the Kulou (Gulou) Hospital and families in 1895.

During he was a professor of Nanking University, his dream of a language school for new missionaries and other foreigners was realized in the Nanking Language School, of which he took charge. His contribution was recognized when the language school dormitory was erected and named Meigs Hall. Mr. Meigs purchased the land for the university campus, a highly desirable plot, the purchase of which called for patient negotiations over a period of years [1]. Since then, almost all new missionaries went to southern China were sent to the school to study Chinese languages. Their home was always open to new missionaries and to strangers passing through the city. She was in her element as hostess of the language school.

Mr. and Mrs. Meigs faced difficult years with staunch faith. They met prejudice, mob violence, epidemics, and revolutions. The last seven years of Mr. Meigs’ life were a constant struggle against ill health. He died at Kuling, LuShan, Jiangxi, China, in 23 August of 1915 and was buried in the Kuling Foreign Cemetery. Mrs. Meigs stayed on in China until her furlough was due, making a home for new missionaries. After furlough she alternated her residence between China which she deeply loved and America where her children lived. She died in Cleveland, Ohio, in October, 1935. In accordance with her wishes, her body was cremated and the ashes sent to Kuling to be interred in the grave of her husband.

Mr. and Mrs. Meigs had three children. One of them died in childhood. The daughter, Ruth, married David Teachout.