愛的分享系列(3)“爱是不嫉妒”,怎样理解“嫉妒”?

愛的分享系列(3)“爱是不嫉妒”,怎样理解“嫉妒”?

“爱是恒久忍耐,又有恩慈;爱是不嫉妒;爱是不自夸,不张狂,不做害羞的事,不求自己的益处,不轻易发怒,不计算人的恶,不喜欢不义,只喜欢真理;凡事包容,凡事相信,凡事盼望,凡事忍耐。爱是永不止息。”

一、开始前的思考

对“爱是不嫉妒”你有没有想提出的疑问?在恋爱中、在婚姻里对动机不善的第三者有些吃醋的防御心理也不可以吗?

二、嫉妒的词汇

英文中嫉妒有两个常用的单词,Envy和Jealousy。据韦氏(Merriam-Webster)它们的词意有所不同。

Envy: painful or resentful awareness of an advantage enjoyed by another joined with a desire to possess the same advantage. It is a reaction to lacking something and is a two-person situation. (Envy:痛苦或怨恨地意识到另一个人拥有的优势,并希望自己拥有。是对别人有而自己缺少的一个反应,是发生在两者之间的。)。Envy 的词源是拉丁语 invidia ,来自动词 invidere,这个动词的意思是「有敌意地看着」。

Jealousy: 1) hostile toward a rival or one believed to enjoy an advantage, 2) intolerant of rivalry or unfaithfulness, 3) disposed to suspect rivalry or unfaithfulness, 4) vigilant in guarding a possession. It is a reaction to the threat of losing something (usually someone) and is a three-person situation. (Jealousy:它可以有四种不同的词意:1)对竞争对手或被认为享有优势的人的敌意;2)对竞争或不忠的不能忍耐;3)对有竞争或不忠的怀疑倾向;4)对守卫自己所拥有的警惕。是对担心自己失去某种东西或某人的一种反应,是发生在三者之间。)

上面词意解释中的第二句话是引自专门比较Envy和Jealousy的文章。我们常说的“爱情是排他的”、“吃醋”等,是涉及第三者的忌妒,是担心失去自己已经拥有的,因此属于Jealousy的忌妒,除非它发展到了一个人没有拥有却坚持要拥有的Envy嫉妒的程度。

中文里也有“嫉妒(妒嫉)”和“忌妒(妒忌)”两个词。但遗憾的是“嫉妒”与“忌妒”并没有严格的区别。现代汉语词典中对它们的词义解释是一模一样,谷歌翻译里也把上面两个英文单词全翻译成了“嫉妒”。有人建议中文应该把“嫉妒”的定义对应Envy,把“忌妒”的定义对应Jealousy,但即使这样做,它们的发音也太过相同,在口语中仍很难区分。

尽管中文的正式语言没有象Envy和Jealousy那样的区分,但在通俗语言中,“红眼病”大致是指的Envy嫉妒,“吃醋”大致是指的Jealousy式忌妒。

大概是圣经翻译者意识到了中文中没有严格对应Jealousy的词汇,因此,在我们下面的讨论中我们将会看到,中文圣经中的“嫉妒”均是对应着英文中的Envy,而Jealous在中文圣经中均被翻译成了“嫉妒”和“妒忌”之外的其他词。

三、世人对“嫉妒”的看法

可以想象,不同的文化对“嫉妒”多持负面的态度,这从中英文对嫉妒的通俗称谓就可以看出。英文里把嫉妒心称为绿眼怪兽(Green-eyed Monster):

中文里如上所述把嫉妒称为“红眼病”:

中文中另一个通俗说法叫“吃醋”。它更主要是指Jealousy那种忌妒,是担心第三者夺走本是属于自己的东西。

但是,尤其是心理学家和经济学家,他们认为嫉妒也可以激励创造力和智力的发挥,唤起人们的专注和记忆。所以他们将嫉妒分为“良性嫉妒”(benign envy)和“恶性嫉妒”(malicious envy)(参考文献1-3)。那么,圣经中是怎样认为的呢?

三、中文圣经中用了“嫉妒”二字的经文

我们现在就先来查出中英文圣经中使用了各嫉妒词的经文,然后来阅读讨论。和合本中文圣经中使用了“嫉妒”二字的经文共有39节。使用“忌妒”、“妒嫉”、“妒忌”的为零。

  1. 创26: 14 他有羊群牛群,又有许多仆人,非利士人就嫉妒他。
  2. 创30: 1 拉结见自己不给雅各生子,就嫉妒他姊姊,对雅各说:你给我孩子,不然我就死了。
  3. 创37: 11 他哥哥们都嫉妒他,他父亲却把这话存在心里。
  4. 民11: 29 摩西对他说:你为我的缘故嫉妒人吗?惟愿耶和华的百姓都受感说话!愿耶和华把他的灵降在他们身上!
  5. 伯5: 2 忿怒害死愚妄人;嫉妒杀死痴迷人。
  6. 诗37: 1 (大卫的诗。)不要为作恶的心怀不平,也不要向那行不义的生出嫉妒
  7. 诗106: 16 他们又在营中嫉妒摩西和耶和华的圣者亚伦。
  8. 箴3: 31 不可嫉妒强暴的人,也不可选择他所行的路。
  9. 箴14: 30 心中安静是肉体的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽烂。
  10. 箴23: 17 你心中不要嫉妒罪人,只要终日敬畏耶和华;
  11. 箴24: 1 你不要嫉妒恶人,也不要起意与他们相处;
  12. 箴24: 19 不要为作恶的心怀不平,也不要嫉妒恶人;
  13. 箴27: 4 忿怒为残忍,怒气为狂澜,惟有嫉妒,谁能敌得住呢?
  14. 传4: 4 我又见人为一切的劳碌和各样灵巧的工作就被邻舍嫉妒。这也是虚空,也是捕风。
  15. 传9: 6 他们的爱,他们的恨,他们的嫉妒,早都消灭了。在日光之下所行的一切事上,他们永不再有分了。
  16. 赛11: 13 以法莲的嫉妒就必消散;扰害犹大的必被剪除。以法莲必不嫉妒犹大,犹大也不扰害以法莲。
  17. 结31: 9 我使他的枝条蕃多,成为荣美,以致神伊甸园中的树都嫉妒他。
  18. 结35: 11 所以主耶和华说:我指着我的永生起誓,我必照你的怒气和你从仇恨中向他们所发的嫉妒待你。我审判你的时候,必将自己显明在他们中间。
  19. 太27: 18 巡抚原知道他们是因为嫉妒才把他解了来。
  20. 可7: 22 偷盗、凶杀、奸淫、贪婪、邪恶、诡诈、淫荡、嫉妒、谤讟、骄傲、狂妄。 Mark7:22 Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness:
  21. 可15: 10 他原晓得,祭司长是因为嫉妒才把耶稣解了来。
  22. 徒7: 9 先祖嫉妒约瑟,把他卖到埃及去;神却与他同在,
  23. 徒13: 45 但犹太人看见人这样多,就满心嫉妒,硬驳保罗所说的话,并且毁谤。
  24. 徒17: 5 但那不信的犹太人心里嫉妒,招聚了些市井匪类,搭伙成群,耸动合城的人闯进耶孙的家,要将保罗、西拉带到百姓那里。
  25. 罗1: 29 装满了各样不义、邪恶、贪婪、恶毒(或作:阴毒),满心是嫉妒、凶杀、争竞、诡诈、毒恨;
  26. 罗13: 13 行事为人要端正,好像行在白昼。不可荒宴醉酒,不可好色邪荡,不可争竞嫉妒
  27. 林前3 :3 你们仍是属肉体的,因为在你们中间有嫉妒、纷争,这岂不是属乎肉体、照着世人的样子行吗?
  28. 林前13 :4 爱是恒久忍耐,又有恩慈;爱是不嫉妒;爱是不自夸,不张狂,
  29. 林后12 :20 我怕我再来的时候,见你们不合我所想望的,你们见我也不合你们所想望的;又怕有纷争、嫉妒、恼怒、结党、毁谤、谗言、狂傲、混乱的事。
  30. 加5: 21 嫉妒(有古卷在此有:凶杀二字)、醉酒、荒宴等类。我从前告诉你们,现在又告诉你们,行这样事的人必不能承受神的国。
  31. 加5: 26 不要贪图虚名,彼此惹气,互相嫉妒
  32. 腓1: 15 有的传基督是出于嫉妒纷争,也有的是出于好意。
  33. 提前6: 4 他是自高自大,一无所知,专好问难,争辩言词,从此就生出嫉妒、纷争、毁谤、妄疑,
  34. 多3: 3 我们从前也是无知、悖逆、受迷惑、服事各样私欲,和宴乐,常存恶毒(或作:阴毒)嫉妒的心,是可恨的,又是彼此相恨。
  35. 雅3: 14 你们心里若怀着苦毒的嫉妒和纷争,就不可自夸,也不可说谎话抵挡真道。
  36. 雅3: 16 在何处有嫉妒、纷争,就在何处有扰乱和各样的坏事。
  37. 雅4: 2 你们贪恋,还是得不着;你们杀害嫉妒,又斗殴争战,也不能得。你们得不着,是因为你们不求。 Jas4:2; Ye lust, and have not: ye kill, and desire to have, and cannot obtain: ye fight and war, yet ye have not, because ye ask not.
  38. 雅4: 5 你们想经上所说是徒然的吗?神所赐、住在我们里面的灵,是恋爱至于嫉妒吗?
  39. 彼前2 :1 所以,你们既除去一切的恶毒(或作阴毒)、诡诈,并假善、嫉妒,和一切毁谤的话

四、英文圣经中用了Envy的经文

英文KJV钦定版圣经中用Envy(包括Envies, Envious,Envied, Enviest, Envying,Envieth)经文共39节。之所以选择的钦定版而不是新国际版的英文圣经,是因为网上中英文对应查询的软件我找到的比较好用的是用的这个版本。
(见附录1)

五、英文圣经中用了Jealousy的经文

英文KJV钦定版圣经中使用Jealous(包括jealousy, jealously)的经文共43节。同时也查询了各条经文的中文翻译。
(见附录2)

六、分析与讨论

我们现在就来对上面的中文“嫉妒”,英文Envy,英文Jealousy的查询结果进行分析和讨论。

1)中文圣经中用了“嫉妒”的经文是39节,英文Envy是39节,英文Jealousy是43节,所以英文圣经中Envy+Jealousy共有82节经文,远多于中文圣经中嫉妒一词的使用;

2)中文圣经“嫉妒”39节经文对应的英文翻译全部是Envy。只有两节是用了Envy以外的词。一是马可书7章22节中的嫉妒,钦定版英文中是用的evil eye(邪恶的目光),在新国际版英文中仍是用的Envy。二是雅各书4章2节中的嫉妒,钦定版英文中是用的(看望拥有),在新国际版英文中用的Covet(贪图)。因此,中文圣经中“嫉妒”的词意是相当于英文的Envy,而不是Jealousy。

3)因为中文里没有准确与Jealousy词意对应的词,英文圣经中43节使用Jealousy的经文均没有用中文“嫉妒”或“忌妒”二词。这些经文中的Jealousy大多数与描述神的情感有关,作形容词时,中文被译为“忌邪的”,如:
出34:14 不可敬拜別神;因為耶和華是忌邪的神,名為忌邪者。

作名词时中文被译为了“憤恨”、“忌恨”、”忿怒”,如:
詩78:58 因他們的邱壇惹了他的怒氣;因他們雕刻的偶像觸動他的憤恨
結16:42 這樣,我就止息向你發的忿怒,我的忌恨也要離開你,我要安靜不再惱怒。
番1:18 當耶和華發怒的日子,他們的金銀不能救他們;他的忿怒如火必燒滅全地,毀滅這地的一切居民,而且大大毀滅。

作名词正面情绪词意时中文被译为了“热心”、“火热”,如:
2:18 耶和華就為自己的地發熱心,憐恤他的百姓。
亞8:2 萬軍之耶和華如此說:我為錫安心裡極其火熱,我為他火熱,向他的仇敵發烈怒。

也有部分经文中的Jealous是与人的情感有关,这时翻译成了“疑恨”、“发愤”。如:
民5:30 或是人生了疑恨的心,疑恨他的妻,就有這疑恨的條例。那時他要叫婦人站在耶和華面前,祭司要在他身上照這條例而行。
羅11:11 我且說,他們失腳是要他們跌倒嗎?斷乎不是!反倒因他們的過失,救恩便臨到外邦人,要激動他們發憤

这些我们在后面还会进一步讨论。

4)嫉妒犯罪的可怕。嫉妒远比单单的怒气更为可怕。“是骨中的朽烂”。

箴27:4 忿怒為殘忍,怒氣為狂瀾,惟有嫉妒,誰能敵得住呢?
箴14:30 心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。
伯5:2 忿怒害死愚妄人;嫉妒殺死癡迷人。

圣经中因嫉妒而犯罪的例子:
1、该隐因嫉妒杀弟弟亚伯:创4:4-5:耶和华看中了亚伯和他的供物。只是看不中该隐和他的供物;该隐就大大地发怒,变了脸色。
2、约瑟的兄弟们因嫉妒把约瑟卖到埃及
3、扫罗追杀大卫
4、拉结因嫉妒妹妹要丈夫同自己的使女生孩子
5、祭司长因嫉妒要彼拉多钉死耶稣

5)我们不仅会对别人的优点和长处嫉妒,我们也可能对坏人和罪人暂时的拥有而嫉妒
箴23:17-18 你心中不要嫉妒罪人,只要终日敬畏耶和华;因为至终必有善报,你的指望也不致断绝。
箴24:1 你不要嫉妒恶人,也不要起意与他们相处;

6)有没有“良性的嫉妒”?

Envy嫉妒:圣经中Envy嫉妒中唯一一个产生了一些有益结果的例子:
腓1:15 有的傳基督是出於嫉妒紛爭,也有的是出於好意。
因Envy嫉妒的开始就是“痛苦或怨恨地意识到”和是带着敌意的,神是审察我们心的神,因此,没有蒙神喜悦的Envy嫉妒,没有良性的Envy嫉妒,即使其偶尔可能短暂地带来一些有益的影响。

Jealousy“忌妒”(我实在找不到其他中文词来翻译,暂时就用忌妒这个词):
Jealousy妒忌则可以是以善意开始,最后的结果也是好的,这时中文圣经中的翻译为“热心”、“发愤”等。如:

赛42:13 耶和华必像勇士出去,必像战士激动热心,要喊叫,大声呐喊,要用大力攻击仇敌。
罗11:11 我且说,他们失脚是要他们跌倒吗?断乎不是!反倒因他们的过失,救恩便临到外邦人,要激动他们发愤

实际上,在43节使用Jealousy的经文中,基本上全部是对Jealousy情感持正面肯定的态度。所以,我们说依据圣经的教导,没有良性、善意的Envy嫉妒,但有良性、善意的Jealous“忌妒”。

7)婚姻里的Jealous“忌妒”可不可以?

先来看经文:
歌8:6 求你将我放在你心上如印记,带在你臂上如戳记。因为爱情如死之坚强,嫉恨(Jealousy)如阴间之残忍;所发的电光是火焰的电光,是耶和华的烈焰。
民5:15 这人就要将妻送到祭司那里,又为他带着大麦面伊法十分之一作供物,不可浇上油,也不可加上乳香;因为这是疑恨的素祭(offering of jealousy),是思念的素祭,使人思念罪孽。
民5:30 或是人生了疑恨的心,疑恨他的妻,就有这疑恨的条例 (law of Jealousies)。那时他要叫妇人站在耶和华面前,祭司要在他身上照这条例而行。

圣经中的神是忌邪的神,祂赐给我们的婚姻也是忌第三者的婚姻。不仅可以有Jealousy,而且有Jealousy的立法条例和Jealousy的素祭,当婚姻里有不忠时,要按那条例和素祭去行。

小结

1、中文圣经中的“嫉妒”对应的英文单词是Envy,不是Jealousy。是痛苦怨恨地意识到另一个人拥有某种优势自己却没有的不怀善意的反应。是红眼病,不是吃醋。

2、由于中文中没有词义与Jealousy比较相配的词,Jealousy在中文圣经里全部被翻译成了嫉妒或忌妒之外的其它词,包括“忌邪的”、“忌恨”、“愤恨”、“嫉恨”、“愤怒”、“疑恨”、“热心”、“火热”、“发愤”等。

3、嫉妒远比单单的怒气更为可怕。“是骨中的朽烂”。

4、我们不仅会对别人的优点和长处嫉妒,我们也可能对坏人和罪人暂时的拥有而嫉妒。

5、没有良性的、善意的嫉妒,但有良性的、善意的Jealousy。我们的神就是忌邪的神。Jealousy也可能使我们发愤、变得热心。

6、在婚姻里我们可以也应该有Jealousy。当婚姻里有不忠时,我们应该按圣经中关于Jealousy的条例和教导认罪悔改。

参考文献:

1、Wallace, J.B. ,2014,Put your envy to good use. The Wall Street Journal.;
2、Reynold, M. (2011). Envy can be good for you. PsychologyToday;
3、Smith, J. (2014). How successful people use envy to getahead. Business Insider

附录1:英文KJV钦定版圣经中使用了Jealous(包括jealousy, jealously)的经文及其中文翻译。

  1. Job5:2 For wrath killeth the foolish man, and envy slayeth the silly one.
  2. Prv14:30 A sound heart is the life of the flesh: but envy the rottenness of the bones.
  3. Prv23:17 Let not thine heart envy sinners: but be thou in the fear of the LORD all the day long.
  4. Prv27:4 Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous; but who is able to stand before envy?
  5. Eccl9:6 Also their love, and their hatred, and their envy, is now perished; neither have they any more a portion for ever in any thing that is done under the sun.
  6. Isa11:13 The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.
  7. Isa26:11 LORD, when thy hand is lifted up, they will not see: but they shall see, and be ashamed for their envy at the people; yea, the fire of thine enemies shall devour them. 賽26:11 耶和華啊,你的手高舉,他們仍然不看;卻要看你為百姓發的熱心,因而抱愧,並且有火燒滅你的敵人。
  8. Eze35:11 Therefore, as I live, saith the Lord GOD, I will even do according to thine anger, and according to thine envy which thou hast used out of thy hatred against them; and I will make myself known among them, when I have judged thee.
  9. Mat27:18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered him.
  10. Mark15:10 For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy.
  11. Acts7:9 And the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into Egypt: but God was with him,
  12. Acts13:45 But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy, and spake against those things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming.
  13. Acts17:5 But the Jews which believed not, moved with envy, took unto them certain lewd fellows of the baser sort, and gathered a company, and set all the city on an uproar, and assaulted the house of Jason, and sought to bring them out to the people.
  14. Rom1:29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
  15. Phi1:15 Some indeed preach Christ even of envy and strife; and some also of good will:
  16. 1Tim6:4 He is proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions and strifes of words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings,
  17. Titus3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another.
  18. Jas4:5 Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy?
  19. 1Pet2:1 Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings,
  20. Psa37:1 Fret not thyself because of evildoers, neither be thou envious against the workers of iniquity.
  21. Psa73:3 For I was envious at the foolish, when I saw the prosperity of the wicked. 詩73:3 我見惡人和狂傲人享平安就心懷不平。
  22. Prv24:1 Be not thou envious against evil men, neither desire to be with them.
  23. Prv24:19 Fret not thyself because of evil men, neither be thou envious at the wicked
  24. Ge26:14 For he had possession of flocks, and possession of herds, and great store of servants: and the Philistines envied him.
  25. Ge30:1 And when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister; and said unto Jacob, Give me children, or else I die.
  26. Ge37:11 And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying.
  27. Psa106:16 They envied Moses also in the camp, and Aaron the saint of the LORD.
  28. Eccl4:4 Again, I considered all travail, and every right work, that for this a man is envied of his neighbour. This is also vanity and vexation of spirit.
  29. Eze31:9 I have made him fair by the multitude of his branches: so that all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden of God, envied him.
  30. Num11:29 And Moses said unto him, Enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the LORD’s people were prophets, and that the LORD would put his spirit upon them!
  31. Rom13:13 Let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying.
  32. 1Cor3:3 For ye are yet carnal: for whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk as men?
  33. 2Cor12:20 For I fear, lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I would, and that I shall be found unto you such as ye would not: lest there be debates, envyings, wraths, strifes, backbitings, whisperings, swellings, tumults:
  34. Gal5:26 Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying one another.
  35. Jas3:14 But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth.
  36. Jas3:16 For where envying and strife is, there is confusion and every evil work.
  37. 1Cor13:4 Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,
  38. Prv3:31 Envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways.
  39. Gal5:21 Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.

附录2:

  1. Exo20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
  2. Exo34:14 For thou shalt worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God:
  3. Num5:14 And the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he be jealous of his wife, and she be defiled: or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he be jealous of his wife, and she be not defiled:
  4. Num5:15 Then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and he shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is an offering of jealousy, an offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance.
  5. Num5:18 And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and uncover the woman’s head, and put the offering of memorial in her hands, which is the jealousy offering: and the priest shall have in his hand the bitter water that causeth the curse:
  6. Num5:25 Then the priest shall take the jealousy offering out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the offering before the LORD, and offer it upon the altar:
  7. Num5:29 This is the law of jealousies, when a wife goeth aside to another instead of her husband, and is defiled;
  8. Num5:30 Or when the spirit of jealousy cometh upon him, and he be jealous over his wife, and shall set the woman before the LORD, and the priest shall execute upon her all this law.
  9. Num25:11 Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned my wrath away from the children of Israel, while he was zealous for my sake among them, that I consumed not the children of Israel in my jealousy.
  10. Deu4:24 For the LORD thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God.
  11. Deu5:9 Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me,
  12. Deu6:15 (For the LORD thy God is a jealous God among you) lest the anger of the LORD thy God be kindled against thee, and destroy thee from off the face of the earth.
  13. Deu29:20 The LORD will not spare him, but then the anger of the LORD and his jealousy shall smoke against that man, and all the curses that are written in this book shall lie upon him, and the LORD shall blot out his name from under heaven.
  14. Deu32:16 They provoked him to jealousy with strange gods, with abominations provoked they him to anger.
  15. Deu32:21 They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God; they have provoked me to anger with their vanities: and I will move them to jealousy with those which are not a people; I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation.
  16. Josh24:19 And Joshua said unto the people, Ye cannot serve the LORD: for he is an holy God; he is a jealous God; he will not forgive your transgressions nor your sins.
  17. 1Ki14:22 And Judah did evil in the sight of the LORD, and they provoked him to jealousy with their sins which they had committed, above all that their fathers had done.
  18. 1Ki19:10 And he said, I have been very jealous for the LORD God of hosts: for the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant, thrown down thine altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away.
  19. 1Ki19:14 And he said, I have been very jealous for the LORD God of hosts: because the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant, thrown down thine altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away.
  20. Psa78:58 For they provoked him to anger with their high places, and moved him to jealousy with their graven images.
  21. Psa79:5 How long, LORD? wilt thou be angry for ever? shall thy jealousy burn like fire?
  22. Prv6:34 For jealousy is the rage of a man: therefore he will not spare in the day of vengeance.
  23. SSol8:6 Set me as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm: for love is strong as death; jealousy is cruel as the grave: the coals thereof are coals of fire, which hath a most vehement flame.
  24. Isa42:13 The LORD shall go forth as a mighty man, he shall stir up jealousy like a man of war: he shall cry, yea, roar; he shall prevail against his enemies.
  25. Eze8:3 And he put forth the form of an hand, and took me by a lock of mine head; and the spirit lifted me up between the earth and the heaven, and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem, to the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north; where was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provoketh to jealousy.
  26. Eze8:5 Then said he unto me, Son of man, lift up thine eyes now the way toward the north. So I lifted up mine eyes the way toward the north, and behold northward at the gate of the altar this image of jealousy in the entry.
  27. Eze16:38 And I will judge thee, as women that break wedlock and shed blood are judged; and I will give thee blood in fury and jealousy.
  28. Eze16:42 So will I make my fury toward thee to rest, and my jealousy shall depart from thee, and I will be quiet, and will be no more angry.
  29. Eze23:25 And I will set my jealousy against thee, and they shall deal furiously with thee: they shall take away thy nose and thine ears; and thy remnant shall fall by the sword: they shall take thy sons and thy daughters; and thy residue shall be devoured by the fire.
  30. Eze36:5 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Surely in the fire of my jealousy have I spoken against the residue of the heathen, and against all Idumea, which have appointed my land into their possession with the joy of all their heart, with despiteful minds, to cast it out for a prey.
  31. Eze36:6 Prophesy therefore concerning the land of Israel, and say unto the mountains, and to the hills, to the rivers, and to the valleys, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I have spoken in my jealousy and in my fury, because ye have borne the shame of the heathen:
  32. Eze38:19 For in my jealousy and in the fire of my wrath have I spoken, Surely in that day there shall be a great shaking in the land of Israel;
  33. Eze39:25 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Now will I bring again the captivity of Jacob, and have mercy upon the whole house of Israel, and will be jealous for my holy name;
  34. Joel2:18 Then will the LORD be jealous for his land, and pity his people.
  35. Nahum1:2 God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies.
  36. Zep1:18 Neither their silver nor their gold shall be able to deliver them in the day of the LORD’s wrath; but the whole land shall be devoured by the fire of his jealousy: for he shall make even a speedy riddance of all them that dwell in the land.
  37. Zep3:8 Therefore wait ye upon me, saith the LORD, until the day that I rise up to the prey: for my determination is to gather the nations, that I may assemble the kingdoms, to pour upon them mine indignation, even all my fierce anger: for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of my jealousy.
  38. Zec1:14 So the angel that communed with me said unto me, Cry thou, saying, Thus saith the LORD of hosts; I am jealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with a great jealousy.
  39. Zec8:2 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; I was jealous for Zion with great jealousy, and I was jealous for her with great fury.
  40. Rom10:19 But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses saith, I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no people, and by a foolish nation I will anger you.
  41. Rom11:11 I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles, for to provoke them to jealousy.
  42. 1Cor10:22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than he?
  43. 2Cor11:2 For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.

【中文:

  1. 出20:5 不可跪拜那些像,也不可事奉他,因为我耶和华─你的神是忌邪的神。恨我的,我必追讨他的罪,自父及子,直到三四代;
  2. 出34:14 不可敬拜别神;因为耶和华是忌邪的神,名为忌邪者。
  3. 民5:14 他丈夫生了疑恨的心,疑恨他,他是被玷污,或是他丈夫生了疑恨的心,疑恨他,他并没有被玷污,
  4. 民5:15 这人就要将妻送到祭司那里,又为他带着大麦面伊法十分之一作供物,不可浇上油,也不可加上乳香;因为这是疑恨的素祭,是思念的素祭,使人思念罪孽。
  5. 民5:18 祭司要叫那妇人蓬头散发,站在耶和华面前,把思念的素祭,就是疑恨的素祭,放在他手中。祭司手里拿着致咒诅的苦水,
  6. 民5:25 祭司要从妇人的手中取那疑恨的素祭,在耶和华面前摇一摇,拿到坛前;
  7. 民5:29 妻子背着丈夫行了污秽的事,
  8. 民5:30 或是人生了疑恨的心,疑恨他的妻,就有这疑恨的条例。那时他要叫妇人站在耶和华面前,祭司要在他身上照这条例而行。
  9. 民25:11 祭司亚伦的孙子,以利亚撒的儿子非尼哈,使我向以色列人所发的怒消了;因他在他们中间,以我的忌邪为心,使我不在忌邪中把他们除灭。
  10. 申4:24 因为耶和华─你的神乃是烈火,是忌邪的神。
  11. 申5:9 不可跪拜那些像,也不可事奉他,因为我耶和华─你的神是忌邪的神。恨我的,我必追讨他的罪,自父及子,直到三、四代;
  12. 申6:15 因为在你们中间的耶和华─你神是忌邪的神,惟恐耶和华─你神的怒气向你发作,就把你从地上除灭。
  13. 申29:20 耶和华必不饶恕他;耶和华的怒气与愤恨要向他发作,如烟冒出,将这书上所写的一切咒诅都加在他身上。耶和华又要从天下涂抹他的名,
  14. 申32:16 敬拜别神,触动神的愤恨,行可憎恶的事,惹了他的怒气。
  15. 申32:21 他们以那不算为神的触动我的愤恨,以虚无的神惹了我的怒气。我也要以那不成子民的触动他们的愤恨,以愚昧的国民惹了他们的怒气。
  16. 书24:19 约书亚对百姓说:你们不能事奉耶和华;因为他是圣洁的神,是忌邪的神,必不赦免你们的过犯罪恶。
  17. 王上14:22 犹大人行耶和华眼中看为恶的事,犯罪触动他的愤恨,比他们列祖更甚。
  18. 王上19:10 他说:我为耶和华─万军之神大发热心;因为以色列人背弃了你的约,毁坏了你的坛,用刀杀了你的先知,只剩下我一个人,他们还要寻索我的命。
  19. 王上19:14 他说:我为耶和华─万军之神大发热心;因为以色列人背弃了你的约,毁坏了你的坛,用刀杀了你的先知,只剩下我一个人,他们还要寻索我的命。
  20. 诗78:58 因他们的邱坛惹了他的怒气;因他们雕刻的偶像触动他的愤恨
  21. 诗79:5 耶和华啊,这到几时呢?你要动怒到永远吗?你的愤恨要如火焚烧吗?
  22. 箴6:34 因为人的嫉恨成了烈怒,报仇的时候决不留情。
  23. 歌8:6 求你将我放在你心上如印记,带在你臂上如戳记。因为爱情如死之坚强,嫉恨如阴间之残忍;所发的电光是火焰的电光,是耶和华的烈焰。
  24. 赛42:13 耶和华必像勇士出去,必像战士激动热心,要喊叫,大声呐喊,要用大力攻击仇敌。
  25. 结8:3 他伸出仿佛一只手的样式,抓住我的一绺头发,灵就将我举到天地中间,在神的异象中,带我到耶路撒冷朝北的内院门口,在那里有触动主怒偶像的坐位,就是惹动忌邪的
  26. 结8:5 神对我说:人子啊,你举目向北观看。我就举目向北观看,见祭坛门的北边,在门口有这惹忌邪的偶像;
  27. 结16:38 我也要审判你,好像官长审判淫妇和流人血的妇女一样。我因忿怒忌恨,使流血的罪归到你身上。
  28. 结16:42 这样,我就止息向你发的忿怒,我的忌恨也要离开你,我要安静不再恼怒。
  29. 结23:25 我必以忌恨攻击你;他们必以忿怒办你。他们必割去你的鼻子和耳朵;你遗留(或译:余剩;下同)的人必倒在刀下。他们必掳去你的儿女;你所遗留的必被火焚烧。
  30. 结36:5 主耶和华对你们如此说:我真发愤恨如火,责备那其余的外邦人和以东的众人。他们快乐满怀,心存恨恶,将我的地归自己为业,又看为被弃的掠物。
  31. 结36:6 所以,你要指着以色列地说预言,对大山小冈、水沟山谷说,主耶和华如此说:我发愤恨和忿怒说,因你们曾受外邦人的羞辱,
  32. 结38:19 我发愤恨和烈怒如火说:那日在以色列地必有大震动,
  33. 结39:25 主耶和华如此说:我要使雅各被掳的人归回,要怜悯以色列全家,又为我的圣名发热心
  34. 珥2:18 耶和华就为自己的地发热心,怜恤他的百姓。
  35. 鸿1:2 耶和华是忌邪施报的神。耶和华施报大有忿怒;向他的敌人施报,向他的仇敌怀怒。
  36. 番1:18 当耶和华发怒的日子,他们的金银不能救他们;他的忿怒如火必烧灭全地,毁灭这地的一切居民,而且大大毁灭。
  37. 番3:8 耶和华说:你们要等候我,直到我兴起掳掠的日子;因为我已定意招聚列国,聚集列邦,将我的恼怒─就是我的烈怒都倾在他们身上。我的忿怒如火,必烧灭全地。
  38. 亚1:14 与我说话的天使对我说:你要宣告说,万军之耶和华如此说:我为耶路撒冷为锡安,心里极其火热
  39. 亚8:2 万军之耶和华如此说:我为锡安心里极其火热,我为他火热,向他的仇敌发烈怒。
  40. 罗10:19 我再说,以色列人不知道吗?先有摩西说:我要用那不成子民的,惹动你们的愤恨;我要用那无知的民触动你们的怒气。
  41. 罗11:11 我且说,他们失脚是要他们跌倒吗?断乎不是!反倒因他们的过失,救恩便临到外邦人,要激动他们发愤
  42. 林前10:22 我们可惹主的愤恨吗?我们比他还有能力吗?
  43. 林后11:2 我为你们起的愤恨,原是神那样的愤恨。因为我曾把你们许配一个丈夫,要把你们如同贞洁的童女,献给基督。 】

附录3:圣经中文和合本使用了“嫉妒”词的经文及其英文对照

创26:14 他有羊群牛群,又有许多仆人,非利士人就嫉妒他。 For he had great wealth of flocks and herds and great numbers of servants; so that the Philistines were full of envy.

创30:1 拉结见自己不给雅各生子,就嫉妒他姊姊,对雅各说:你给我孩子,不然我就死了。 Now Rachel, because she had no children, was full of envy of her sister; and she said to Jacob, If you do not give me children I will not go on living.

创37:11 他哥哥们都嫉妒他,他父亲却把这话存在心里。 And his brothers were full of envy; but his father kept his words in mind.

民11:29 摩西对他说:你为我的缘故嫉妒人吗?惟愿耶和华的百姓都受感说话!愿耶和华把他的灵降在他们身上! And Moses said to him, Are you moved by envy on my account? If only all the Lord’s people were prophets, and the Lord might put his spirit on them!

伯5:2 忿怒害死愚妄人;嫉妒杀死痴迷人。 Resentment kills a fool, and envy slays the simple.

诗37:1 (大卫的诗。)不要为作恶的心怀不平,也不要向那行不义的生出嫉妒。 Do not be angry because of the wrongdoers, or have envy of the workers of evil.

诗106:16 他们又在营中嫉妒摩西和耶和华的圣者亚伦。 They were full of envy against Moses among the tents, and against Aaron, the holy one of the Lord.

箴3:31 不可嫉妒强暴的人,也不可选择他所行的路。 Have no envy of the violent man, or take any of his ways as an example.

箴14:30 心中安静是肉体的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽烂。 A quiet mind is the life of the body, but envy is a disease in the bones.

箴23:17 你心中不要嫉妒罪人,只要终日敬畏耶和华;Have no envy of sinners in your heart, but keep in the fear of the Lord all through the day;

箴24:1 你不要嫉妒恶人,也不要起意与他们相处;Have no envy for evil men, or any desire to be with them:

箴24:19 不要为作恶的心怀不平,也不要嫉妒恶人;Do not be troubled because of evil-doers, or have envy of sinners:

箴27:4 忿怒为残忍,怒气为狂澜,惟有嫉妒,谁能敌得住呢? Wrath is cruel, and angry feeling an overflowing stream; but who does not give way before envy?

传4:4 我又见人为一切的劳碌和各样灵巧的工作就被邻舍嫉妒。这也是虚空,也是捕风。 And I saw that the cause of all the work and of everything which is done well was man’s envy of his neighbour. This again is to no purpose and a desire for wind.

传9:6 他们的爱,他们的恨,他们的嫉妒,早都消灭了。在日光之下所行的一切事上,他们永不再有分了。 Their love and their hate and their envy are now ended; and they have no longer a part for ever in anything which is done under the sun.

赛11:13 以法莲的嫉妒就必消散;扰害犹大的必被剪除。以法莲必不嫉妒犹大,犹大也不扰害以法莲。 And the envy of Ephraim will be gone, and those who make trouble for Judah will come to an end: Ephraim will have no more envy of Judah, and there will be an end of Judah’s hate for Ephraim.

结31:9 我使他的枝条蕃多,成为荣美,以致神伊甸园中的树都嫉妒他。 I made it beautiful with its mass of branches: so that all the trees in the garden of God were full of envy of it.

结35:11 所以主耶和华说:我指着我的永生起誓,我必照你的怒气和你从仇恨中向他们所发的嫉妒待你。我审判你的时候,必将自己显明在他们中间。 For this cause, by my life, says the Lord, I will do to you as you have done in your wrath and in your envy, which you have made clear in your hate for them; and I will make clear to you who I am when you are judged by me.

太27:18 巡抚原知道他们是因为嫉妒才把他解了来。 For he saw that for envy they had given him up.

可7:22 偷盗、凶杀、奸淫、贪婪、邪恶、诡诈、淫荡、嫉妒、谤讟、骄傲、狂妄。 greed, malice, deceit, lewdness, envy, slander, arrogance and folly.

可15:10 他原晓得,祭司长是因为嫉妒才把耶稣解了来。 For he saw that the chief priests had given him up through envy.

徒7:9 先祖嫉妒约瑟,把他卖到埃及去;神却与他同在,And the brothers, moved with envy against Joseph, gave him to the Egyptians for money: but God was with him,

徒13:45 但犹太人看见人这样多,就满心嫉妒,硬驳保罗所说的话,并且毁谤。 But when the Jews saw such a great number of people, they were full of envy and said evil words against Paul’s preaching.

徒17:5 但那不信的犹太人心里嫉妒,招聚了些市井匪类,搭伙成群,耸动合城的人闯进耶孙的家,要将保罗、西拉带到百姓那里。 But the Jews, being moved with envy, took with them certain low persons from among the common people, and getting together a great number of people, made an outcry in the town, attacking the house of Jason with the purpose of taking them out to the people.

罗1:29 装满了各样不义、邪恶、贪婪、恶毒(或作:阴毒),满心是嫉妒、凶杀、争竞、诡诈、毒恨;Being full of all wrongdoing, evil, desire for the goods of others , hate, envy, putting to death, fighting, deceit, cruel ways, evil talk, and false statements about others;

罗13:13 行事为人要端正,好像行在白昼。不可荒宴醉酒,不可好色邪荡,不可争竞嫉妒;With right behaviour as in the day; not in pleasure-making and drinking, not in bad company and unclean behaviour, not in fighting and envy.

林前3:3 你们仍是属肉体的,因为在你们中间有嫉妒、纷争,这岂不是属乎肉体、照着世人的样子行吗? Because you are still in the flesh: for when there is envy and division among you, are you not still walking after the way of the flesh, even as natural men?

林前13:4 爱是恒久忍耐,又有恩慈;爱是不嫉妒;爱是不自夸,不张狂,Love is never tired of waiting; love is kind; love has no envy; love has no high opinion of itself , love has no pride;

林后12:20 我怕我再来的时候,见你们不合我所想望的,你们见我也不合你们所想望的;又怕有纷争、嫉妒、恼怒、结党、毁谤、谗言、狂傲、混乱的事。 or I have a fear that, when I come, you may not be answering to my desire, and that I may not be answering to yours; that there may be fighting, hate, angry feeling, divisions, evil talk about others, secrets, thoughts of pride, outbursts against authority;

加5:21 嫉妒(有古卷在此有:凶杀二字)、醉酒、荒宴等类。我从前告诉你们,现在又告诉你们,行这样事的人必不能承受神的国。 Envy, uncontrolled drinking and feasting, and such things: of which I give you word clearly, even as I did in the past, that they who do such things will have no part in the kingdom of God.

加5:26 不要贪图虚名,彼此惹气,互相嫉妒。 Let us not be full of self-glory, making one another angry, having envy of one another.

腓1:15 有的传基督是出于嫉妒纷争,也有的是出于好意。 Though some are preaching Christ out of envy and competition, others do it out of a good heart:

提前6​​:4 他是自高自大,一无所知,专好问难,争辩言词,从此就生出嫉妒、纷争、毁谤、妄疑,He has an over-high opinion of himself; being without knowledge, having only an unhealthy love of questionings and wars of words, from which come envy, fighting, cruel words, evil thoughts,

多3:3 我们从前也是无知、悖逆、受迷惑、服事各样私欲,和宴乐,常存恶毒(或作:阴毒)嫉妒的心,是可恨的,又是彼此相恨。 For in the past we were foolish, hard in heart, turned from the true way, servants of evil desires and pleasures, living in bad feeling and envy, hated and hating one another.

雅3:14 你们心里若怀着苦毒的嫉妒和纷争,就不可自夸,也不可说谎话抵挡真道。 But if you have bitter envy in your heart and the desire to get the better of others, have no pride in this, talking falsely against what is true.

雅3:16 在何处有嫉妒、纷争,就在何处有扰乱和各样的坏事。 For where envy is, and the desire to get the better of others, there is no order, but every sort of evil-doing.

雅4:2 你们贪恋,还是得不着;你们杀害嫉妒,又斗殴争战,也不能得。你们得不着,是因为你们不求。 You are burning with desire, and have not your desire, so you put men to death; you are full of envy, and you are not able to get your desire, so you are fighting and making war; you have not your desire, because you do not make request for it.

雅4:5 你们想经上所说是徒然的吗?神所赐、住在我们里面的灵,是恋爱至于嫉妒吗? Or does it seem to you that it is for nothing that the holy Writings say, The spirit which God put into our hearts has a strong desire for us?

Or do you think Scripture says without reason that the spirit he caused to live in us envies intensely?

彼前2:1 所以,你们既除去一切的恶毒(或作阴毒)、诡诈,并假善、嫉妒,和一切毁谤的话,So putting away all wrongdoing, and all tr​​icks and deceits and envies and evil talk,